Materials will help limit indirect contact transmission of COVID-19
Two Miami University researchers in protein, polymer and materials chemistry received a Rapid Response Research (RAPID) grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) for a project that will address the spread of the novel coronavirus.
They received $181,849 to develop materials that can be used to prevent indirect contact transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus responsible for COVID-19.
Reduce indirect contact transmission of COVID-19
The virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic is especially concerning for indirect contact transmission, since it can remain active on various surfaces for extended periods of time, Konkolewicz said.
If a person infected with COVID-19 deposits active viral particles (droplets or aerosols) on frequently touched surfaces, the disease can be transmitted if an uninfected person picks up the active viruses from the contaminated surface.
In this way, the disease can be spread even if the two individuals do not ever come in direct contact with each other. Since the virus can remain active on surfaces for days, there is an increased risk of indirect contact transmission.
To help limit this, Konkolewicz and Page will develop materials that can capture and inactivate the coronavirus on surfaces.
Capture and inactivate the virus
Through their work in synthetic polymer chemistry and protein chemistry, the researchers plan two complementary approaches in developing coronavirus-attacking materials:
Inactivate: One approach is to disrupt the lipid layer/lipid envelope in the coronavirus. This lipid envelope is critical to the structure of the virus and also to its infection mechanism. “If we disrupt the lipids, we can inactivate the coronavirus, such that it cannot infect a new individual,” Konkolewicz said. (Handwashing with soap is one example of disrupting the lipid layer to inactivate the virus).
Capture: The other approach is to capture and trap the coronavirus spike proteins within the synthetic material. This way the virus cannot leave and provide a path for a new infection.
Combined: The researchers will also develop materials with both capture and inactivation capabilities. This two-pronged approach tethers the virus to the surface to allow for increased opportunities to attack and inactivate it, Page said.
The new materials they develop could be adapted or coated onto existing high touch surfaces to limit indirect contact transmission, Konkolewicz said. The polymers will form a tough network to ensure the material performs for an extended period of time.
Konkolewicz and Page will also develop content on the importance of polymer materials in healthcare applications. This will be distributed through YouTube channels for accessibility to the public.
About the researchers
Konkolewicz researches responsive, or “smart” polymer materials and materials that contain both synthetic and biological components. He was awarded an NSF CAREER Award for self-healing polymers in 2018. He was named a 2018 Young Investigator by the American Chemical Society-Polymer, Materials Science, and Engineering section and he received the 2018 Polymer Chemistry Emerging Investigator Award. He and his research team have multiple research collaborations with colleagues in chemistry, biochemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. He was named a Miami University Junior Faculty Scholar in 2018.
Follow Konkolewicz on Twitter @PolyKonkol.
Page researches the structure, dynamics and mechanisms of action for proteins in a range of biologic and synthetic systems. He was named a Miami University Junior Faculty Scholar in 2016. He received an NSF Career grant in 2016 for his research on protein quality control. In 2018 he received a five-year MIRA (Maximizing Investigator’s Research Award) — one of Miami’s first two — that supports his research projects on protein quality control and antibiotic resistance. He has multiple research collaborations with colleagues in chemistry, biochemistry and bioengineering.
Follow Page on Twitter @ThePageLab.
NSF RAPID grants
The grant for “RAPID: Viral Particle Disrupting and Sequestering Polymer Materials applied to Coronaviruses,” will support the research of Page and Konkolewicz for one year and support three graduate students.
RAPID grants give the NSF a way to help fight the pandemic by supporting scientists doing relevant work across many disciplines, according to the foundation. They may be funded for up to $200,000 and up to one year in duration, with an average award size of $89,000.
In March Congress gave NSF an extra $75 million in the CARES Act stimulus funding to spend on research projects that will help “prevent, prepare for, and respond” to the novel coronavirus.
Photos of Dominik Konkolewicz and Rick Page by Miami University Photo Services. Image of coronaviruses by By U.S. Army. Public domain.